Post-1909 German made Ottoman Turkish ‘Imperial Army’: ‘Type-A’ version buckle. This uses more florid Ottoman Turkish script for 'Asakr-i Shahaneh' meaning the 'Imperial Army', contained within the crescent (The Post-1909 German made Ottoman Turkish ‘Imperial Army’: ‘Type-B’ version buckle, has plainer Ottoman Turkish script for 'Asakr-i Shahaneh' meaning the 'Imperial Army', contained within the crescent - a version can be seen HERE).
The next buckle, is a War-Time Veriation: Type 3 (Flaherty, C. (2012) WW1 Wartime Ottoman Turkish Soldiers’ Buckles. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 113 (September-October): 33-35). This is identical to the craftsmen engraved one with floral patterns, including an Ottoman script inscription, and the Ottoman Turkish RUMI Calendar (the Ottoman Turkish civil calendar) date of 1332, which is 1916. This type, displays a simplified circular shield fixture, with a star and crescent badge fixed on it. This buckle type is heavy cast brass construction. Several of these are known to exist, and all are near identical in construction. This illustrates the back incorporating, which did have a hook-handle made similar to the post-1909 buckles, and were intended to fit the same standard infantry soldiers’ 42 mm wide belt, made following German patterns. As can be seen, this version has been 'field repaired', by a soldier in WW1, using twisted steel wire. From the back, the fount shield is attached by cast prongs that have been hammered down, without use of solder.
From the Rod Wilson collection in Australia, likely illustrates one of only two known examples of a WW1-wartime Ottoman Turkish Imperial Army (the 'Asakr-i Shahaneh' in Ottoman) NCO/soldier’s tunic made with attached shoulder straps. This is tunic was salvaged as blanketing on the day of the Gallipoli landing, 25 April 1915. See Plate 35.
The attached shoulder straps was a rank symbol in its own right, these have been assumed to be made for an Onbasi (a corporal), as there are no bars displayed.
The shoulder straps are recognisable as workshop tacked together items. Showen with bronze numerals (a ‘5’, and ‘3’) that could have been attached to the shoulder straps . More typically by WW1 metal numerals were worn on the soldiers’ collars; and officers displayed the numerals on their cords/boards. The final point to note, is the large size of these straps – approximately 14 cm by 5-6 cm. However, other examples show typically Ottoman Turkish shoulder cords/boards are much smaller, in some cases minute when compared to other period uniforms
 Flaherty, C. (2011) WW1 Turkish Collar Numerals. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 103 (January-February, 2011): 25-26.
Displayed in the Turkish National Army Museum, high quality Army 1909 General Staff officer's and Infantry officer's uniforms. Whereas the Red General Staff officer's collar is easy to identify, the Dark Green collars at this period for the Infantry, tended to vary between Dark Grey, and Dark Brown colours, which can make it difficult to distinguish these from Machine Guns (Bottle Green).
Another picture of a high quality 1909 General Staff officer's uniform, pictured alongside a corrected (the pockets on the original were accidentally miss-aligned and drawn further down the side of the uniform - which is not correct) Turkish Army illustration of the officer's jacket pattern. In particular, note that pockets on these tunics are not standardised, as these could be:
This WW1-wartime picture of Turkish POW gives an example of a soldier with his post-1913 Imperial Army Soldier’s Kabalak wrapped in cloth, and tied with tape. The post Balkan War, Army reforms the ‘Kabalak’ or ‘Enver’ as it has become known was introduced.
Typically, it has been said that Turkish Kabalaks came in various forms, some had an internal frame with material wound around, while others were apparently made from heavy canvas-like material. None of this is entirely correct, and many of the misconceptions about this particular headgear can be traced back to a clear misreading of the original description given in the 1916 Turkish Army Handbook:
“The cap is a khaki kalpak with a distinctive top or dome the same color as the coat collars. Officers have gold (non-combatants silver) ornamental bands on the crowns. But the rank and file were supplied in 1913 and 1914 with a new head-covering (bashlik), a long strip of khaki cloth tied spirally on the head and forming a sort of soft helmet, which can easily be mistaken for the British khaki helmet in a bad light. It is however, more pointed and falls particularly in front and behind." 
There is a footnote to this description, stating that the “bashlik” is also, “known as the Enverie or ‘Enver Helmet’ after the war minister who introduced it” . However, this paragraph is actually describing two entirely different types of headgear. These are, the:
Originally, the M1913 Ottoman Turkish ‘Kabalak’ or 'Enveriye' helmet was designed as a cane-wood frame with two lengths of cloth wrapped about it - which are in actual fact the long-ears of a face warmer head wrap that can be loosen to wrap around the face (a replica is illustrated).
The later “bashlik” is almost identical to the Russian type of the period. When unwound, the ears could tie across the face for additional warmth.This change consisted of a cap being issued, cut to a similar shape as the original Kabalak, however being made in one piece from thick blanket wool.
 British General Staff. (1995) 1916 Handbook of the Turkish Army. Battery Press, Nashville: 50.
Displayed in the Australian War Memorial, this cap is likely a Bashlik –type as well. The second picture shows a post-1913 Army soldier’s Kabalak, this rarely seen view shows what these caps look like when unwound, to tie across the face for additional warmth. Below, from a French museum collection, a version of the wartime Bashlik-type, with very long 'ears'.
Next: A high quality Kabalak displayed in the National Turkish Army Museum, Istanbul. This not only has a brass spike attached on top, supported by a strong ridged frame. It also displays a quality brass ‘Order of Orta’ crescent badge. The wrapped earflaps are fully lined and edged with tape.
Right - The WW1 Turkish Army officer' sunhat also came in a ‘soft version’, and due to the wide brim is often pictured with the fount brim folded up. This was to give the wearer unencumbered vision.
Illustrated in Plate 128 (below), this version as well as an earlier 1909 'pointed-top' type. Use of these hats is similar to the figure is shown wearing the traditional Yemeni shade hat, made from woven cane, called the ‘dhola’. Now uncommon, these were seen across North Africa, and the French encountered during their 1881 invasion, the Tunisian Guard Sipahi Cavalry wearing these.
The Austrians briefly trained a unit of Ottoman skiers in 1914 or 1915. The unit - Ottoman Ski Troops, was operational in the Caucasus, 1917. These troops were provided with a white sniper smocks.
The basis of these were commercially available civilian hunter's camouflage capes used in winter, and wooded places, from the turn of the century; and bought for military use in WW1 when the need for this type of kit became useful.
Right - WW1 Turkish soldier with collar numerals.
Ottoman Turkish collar numeral 3. “The collar of the jacket of rank and file bears or should bear the number of the regiment on the right-hand side and the company number on the left-hand side.” British General Staff. (1995) 1916 Handbook of the Turkish Army. Battery Press, Nashville: 51.
The WW1 Ottomans received German Gas Mask training in Berlin, and were issued with these, as part of the Ottoman Turkish military commitment to Eastern European front, which ended in September 1917, with the withdrawal of Russia from the war. Turkish soldiers were wearing gas masks during the Battle of Galitsia/Galicia, 1917. The actual gas mask pattern being used look to be the Model 1915 Gummimaske [gas mask] .
 Birinci Dunya Savasi'nda Turk Askeri Kiyafetleri [Turkish Military Uniforms during WW1]: 70.
This photograph extracted from Mesut Uyar, and Edward J. Erickson. (2009) A Military History of the Ottomans. Greenwood: 198 purports to show the pre-1908 Hamidiye Cavalry, form an Arab tribe, however this particular picture was likely taken in WW1, and shows an Ottoman-Arab Tribal Cavalry unit (many of whom were reactivated former Hamidiye Cavalry. However, the lances are traditional Arab weapons of the period (and there were no such weapon used as "military issue heavy lances" .
 Flaherty, C. (2012) Were the Ottoman Turkish Imperial Guard at Gallipoli? The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 111 (May-June): 19-22.
The First Lancers (from the pre-1908 Imperial Guard), and which also appear to have been amalgamated with the Ertugrul Cavalry by WW1 are recorded in the 1916 British Army handbook on the Turkish Army. However, this gives somewhat contradictory information about the lancers. Firstly, describing – “Lances are carried by the Bodyguard Squadron (these troops were the personal attendants to Sultan Mehmed V Reshad) and the First (Lancer) Regiment” (p.63). However, later only the 1st Cavalry Regiment (which is part of the 1st Army (p.163), is mentioned in the “Regimental Index” (p.215). Hence, we can conclude that the reference to the 1st Cavalry Regiment is actually the 'First Lancers Regiment'. It is stated that the 1st Cavalry is - "Reported moving into Southern Thrace in May 1915. Apparently patrolling Keshan-Kavak Region, May 1915" (p.163). Kavak is the sub-district of Evrese, in the province of Canakkale (Gallipoli). By 1917, most English sources pick up the story of the "Turkish Lancers", as being in Beersheba. It is likely however, that these troops are in actual fact the First Lancers. Notwithstanding, at the 1917 Battle of Beersheba, it was reported:
Examining known photos of the Turkish lancers in 1917, shows troops whose uniforms and equipment seem to differ, possibly indicating various different units in existence. The first pictures shows these troops wearing various pattern of 'Bashlik' (or as it is more commonly known as the 'Enverie'). As well, the lance pennants flags appear to be one colour only, which would be correct as the original First Lancers (and the Ertugrul Cavalry) lance pennants were all red. illustrates the Turkish Lancers as well, which is also likely to be the same unit again, namely the First Lancers. Except this time, they are wearing the Arab Keffiyeh. However, these do not appear to be the Arab Tribal Cavalry. Namely, if they were so armed tended to use (in the period) a traditional lance, which had a distinctive rope tassel at the head, below the spear point (illustrated in the picture above), as well as being longer in the shaft than the standard Ottoman Imperia Army lance (based on the 19th Century French Model). This is often commented on in period reporting. As well, the 1916 British Army hand book clearly states that the Tribal Cavalry (including the Arabs) each had to provide their own horse, and saddle equipment (and this would be the same as illustrated above). WW1 Pictures of the Turkish Lancers, these are ridding typical Turkish Army mounts, lending credence to the view these are regular cavalrymen; thus are in fact the First Lancers.
 The ‘regiments’ in Palestine were extensively photographed in WW1, and these pictures only ever show squadron, and smaller detachment sized units, which suggests the 1st regiment was further divided into smaller detachments numbered 6-onwards, after the regiments’ own first four squadrons.
In 1914, the Camel Troops regiment was founded for the Canal Expedition, under the 10th Infantry Division . The Imperial Army had five transport camel battalions. In addition, there were a number of independent camel companies, and additional regiments:
In January 1916, in Birussebi there was a camel company of the 3rd division, however unlike the other transport units, this was designated as “Akıncı” (raiders). As well, a 2nd Camel Raiders company was also in Birussebi. Right - from the Australian War Memorial Collection a Camel Raiders Trooper, wearing their distinctive field brown zouave uniform.
 "The Hedjaz Division had and still has two ... [cavalry brigade] ... squadrons monted on mules and camels." British General Staff. (1995) 1916 Handbook of the Turkish Army. Battery Press, Nashville: 58.
Following 1916, one of the Camels Raiders Troop companies became a 4th Army HQ Protection unit - pictured below (they are identified by wearing the sleeve patch for the Army HQ Protection patch - a small square cloth, cross divided into alternate red/white triangles). This unit remained part of its parent formation, the 1st camel regiment, that was sent to the Hejaz Corps. This regiment had three camel companies and a MG Company. And the 2nd camel regiment was in Medina.
A Turkish soldier in the snows of Galicia (1916). He is wearing a winter cloak made of Goatskin, which is traditional the Balkans region.
Throughout the 1870s till the end of the Ottoman empire in 1923, every regiment, and battalion had an Imam to assist soldiers in the performance of their religious duties (Askeri Müze ve Kültür Sitesti Komutanligi. (1986) Osmanli askeri teskilat ve kiyafetleri: 1876-1908 [Ottoman military organization and uniforms] Yayinlari: 16).
Right - A WW1-period prayer meeting featuring the wall rug illustrated in Plate 154.
An extract from the 1917 Red Cross Report on Turkish 'Prisioners of War' in Egyptian internment camps illustrates that in WW1 not all imam held officer roles.