Ottoman Uniforms
Ottoman Uniforms

WW1 OTTOMAN GENERAL STAFF; MACHINE GUNS; REDIF; OFFICERS' UNIFORM ITEMS; KAPPENABZEICHEN; AND BANDS

Imperial Army General Staff and Army Staffs

Right - General Staff collar insignia:

A: The post-1909 version of the badge,

B: The 1876 version of the badge.

Staff Orderlies

Machine Gun Troops

Redif

Converted Officer's Uniforms

Right (Below/Right) - Illustrates a uniform pictured in Tunca Orses. Necmettin Ozcelik. (2007) Dunya Savasi'nda Turk Askeri Kiyafetleri 1914-1918. Militärmuseum, Istanbul: 35. Said to be from the Gallipoli Campaign, 1915. This seven-button sand-khaki cotton jacket with large gilt star and crescent buttons - identical to the Egypt Army, and the Turkish Army (the 1876 Button). This looks to be an Egypt Army uniform, fitted with:

  • Field manufactured thin-gilt cord flat laid on shoulder boards;
  • Backed with the same dark green cloth as the collar patches;, and,
  • Mounted with apparently British Army bronze officer's pips.'

Right - The full uniform is pictured below: Pictured in Tunca Orses. Necmettin Ozcelik. (2007) Dunya Savasi'nda Turk Askeri Kiyafetleri 1914-1918. Militärmuseum, Istanbul: 35. This uniform has dark green collar patches added for the infantry service.

Officer's Wide-Brim Sun Hats

Right - First seen in 1908 various patterns of wide-brim sun hats were popular in the WW1 Ottoman army. The WW1 Turkish Army officer' wide-brim sunhat also came in a ‘soft version’, and due to the wide brim is often pictured with the fount brim folded up. This was to give the wearer unencumbered vision [1].

Right - Two versions of the post-1914 Turkish Army officer's sunhat, in the Imperial War Museum collection:

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[1] Pictured in Tunca Orses. Necmettin Ozcelik. (2007) Dunya Savasi'nda Turk Askeri Kiyafetleri 1914-1918. Militärmuseum, Istanbul. 

Ottoman Unit Kappenabzeichen

(Austrian Made Unit Campaign Badges)

Right - Both these WW1 Turkish officers are wearing matching Austrian made kappenabzeichen as collar insignia, to distinguish the unit they belong too.

A: Is the 'Belgrad 1916' kappenabzeichen.

B:

Below/Right - A Turkish junior officer wearing  on the left side of the chest as a badge to distinguish the unit he belongs too. This is an Austrian made kappenabzeichen for XV.KAIS.OSM.ARMEE KORPS. For the XV Corps, Ottoman Imperial Army.

Austrian Army contractors made four kappenabzeichen for the Turkish Army Corps fighting in the East Europe Campaign in 1916-17.

The practice of soldiers of the Austria-Hungary army wearing the Kappenabzeichen (cap badges) largely began during WW I in 1914-1918. These served as unit emblem (as well as identified and commemorated specific events in the individual unit's war history), when the different troops were given the same field grey uniforms.

In the case of the Turkish troops, the Austrian Army extended the practice, to incorporate these soldiers as well. Four particular badges can be related to the XV Corps (Imperial Army):

XV.KAIS.OSM.ARMEE KORPS (Below/Right).

KAIS.OTTOM.15.KORPS.1916: This is also in gilt bronze stamped. With sewing loops on back. Marked on back: Gurschner Wien VII (Below).

GALIZIEN 1916 19.OTTOM.DIVISION: The 19th Ottoman Imperial Army Division, consisting of the 57th; 72nd; 77th Infantry Regiments. The 19th Division was commanded by Mustafa Kemal at Gallipoli. Zinc badge, with pin back. Maker marked on back: A G WINTER & ADLER WIEN.

HEERESGRUPPE BÖHM ERMOLLI (Battle of Kerensky, July 1917). Bronze gilt and enamelled. Unmarked.Böhm-Ermolli commanded the 2. Army from the beginning of the war (1914) till May 1918. This incorporated the Turkish XV. Corps, led by Generalmajor Javid Pasha. Atthe Battle of Kerensky, July 1917.

Bands and Military Music Department

Right - A 1915 illustration showing two Imperial Army music corps soldiers, with the 1909-period shoulder wings.

The exact post-1909 Band - Military Music Department insignia colors is not entirely clear, as the only uniform information is for the bandsmen's wings given the 1911 Italian Army manual on the Ottoman Army, as black with white stripes (Below/Right). This suggests the uniform facings were black as well.

Right - The 1916 introduction of yellow facings, for the Military Music Department, seems to have coincided with a change in the bandsmen's wings from black to red, with white stripes, illustrated (Far Right), based on a WW1 sketch by the war artist: Fransiz Ressam Charles Fouqueray "tarafindan 1916 yilinda yapilan turk ordusu kiyafet eskizleri [Drawn in 1916 by the French painter Charles Fouqueray (1869 - 1956) Turk Army Clothes Sketches]". [1]

Right - This picture of a military band member, with the rank of Bascavus Muavini (Assistant Sergeant-major), shows dark coloured shoulder board, and collar patched clearly displaying some type of metal badge. This appears to be: Lyre rank badge for a Music Bandmaster (as these were in use by 1921).

In this example, the colour of the shoulder board and collar patch is suggested to be silver for the rank bars (as the band was a non-combat role), a cast brass Lyre, and either:

  • Red (in keeking with the shoulder wings)
  • Black (in keeking with another version of the shoulder wings)
  • Possibly, Deep-Purple - As this was the facing colour for the Imperial Army Music School.

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[1] Tunca Orses. Necmettin Ozcelik. (2007) Dunya Savasi'nda Turk Askeri Kiyafetleri 1914-1918. Militärmuseum, Istanbul: 145.

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