Ottoman Uniforms
Ottoman Uniforms


eNotes on WW1 Turkish Headgear

C.Flaherty eNOTES WW1 Turkish Headgear (2012) 


1876 till 1908 Imperial Army Headgear

1876 Helmet of the Firemen Regiment

Post-1909 Army Officer’s Kabalak

Post-1914 Officer’s Sunhat

Post-1908 Army Soldier’s Kalpak

Post-1913 Army Soldier’s Kabalak

Post-1916 Army Bashlik

Post-1909 Army Officer’s Kalpak

Covers and Insignia

Navy Officers’ Caps

Navy Sailors’ Caps

Yildirim Army Group Steel Helmet


eNotes on WW1 Turkish Headgear
History of WW1 Turkish Army and Navy Military Headgear.
eNOTES WW1 Turkish Headgear_Flaherty_7JU[...]
Adobe Acrobat document [4.7 MB]

eNotes on Turkish Belt Buckles

C.Flaherty eNOTES Turkish Belt Buckles (2016) 


Pashas, Generals, Officers
Post-1909 Army Officers’ Buckle
German Made Buckle
Officers’ Wartime Variations
Turkish Hook’n’Eye Buckles
War Academy Students
War Academy Artillery Students and the Field Artillery
Turkish 1876 Buckle

Imperial Army’ Soldiers’ Buckle

Soldiers’ Wartime Buckle Variations
Navy Officers Buckles
Ordinary Ships’ Crew Buckles
Reproduction Stamped Metal Buckles
Fake Cast Metal Buckles

Star and Crescent Buckles
Modern Turkish Army & Navy Buckles
Other Countries Buckles
French 1930(s) Officers’ Buckles

eNotes on WW1 Turkish Belt Buckles
History of WW1 Turkish Army and Navy Belt Buckles.
eNOTES Turkish Belt Buckles_Flaherty_6DE[...]
Adobe Acrobat document [9.3 MB]

Updated Editing Note on Turkish Belt Buckles eNote (2016)

Right - As can be seen in the extracted photo-still from the film 'Lawrence of Arabia', this film prop WW1 Turkish officers’ buckle (Far-Right) is clearly been worn by the actors, portraying Turkish Soldiers [1].

The buckle like the rest of the Turkish uniforms worn in Lawrence of Arabia were manufactured at M. Berman Ltd. (18 Irving Street, Leicester Square, London). M. Berman Ltd ceased operations around 1972, 

Right - An M. Berman Ltd. label from inside a Turkish soldiers jacket made for the 1962 movie, 'Lawrence of Arabia',

Right - As can be seen clearly in this screenshot from 'The Lighthorsemen' (1987, Australian World War I film), the M. Berman Ltd. film prop WW1 Turkish Officers’ buckle was used in the uniform costumes. The 1962 movie, 'Lawrence of Arabia' credits a UK production company Horizon Pictures (G.B.), with a Phyllis Dalton, as Costume Designer/Costume and Wardrobe Department, also from the UK. Horizon Pictures, ceased production in 1983. Costume stocks, were sold-off, going onto the market after 1983, would explain the first appearance of the M. Berman Ltd. film prop WW1 Turkish Officers’ buckle being presented as an original WW1 item in Guido Rosignoli,’The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Military Insignia of the 20th Century’ (1986) (Below/Right).

Right - The M. Berman Ltd. film prop WW1 Turkish Officers’ buckle makes an appearance in Guido Rosignoli,’The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Military Insignia of the 20th Century’ (1986): 75. Significantly, this book clearly dates the Turkish buckle no.5 as WW1; whereas buckle '7' (the 1962 film prop) is discribed "It shows also a locket-type clasp of Turkish officers". The book only displays other moden Turkish military insignia.

Frederick Wilkinson ‘Collecting Military Antiques’ (1976), only shows the standard WW1 Turkish belt buckle types, and makes no mention of the 1962 film prop version. It is illustrative that the 1983 'Military Collectables: An International Directory to 20th-Century Militaria' Joe Lyndhurst (November 1983), has no Turkish belt buckles displayed in it. However, the 1962 film prop buckle has been pictured as an original WW1 item in the following books:

  • Joseph Berton, 'T. E. Lawrence and The Arab Revolt: An Illustrated Guide' (February 2012).
  • Kadir Turker Gecer, ‘Birinci Dunya Savasi Doneminde Turk Ordusunda Kullanilan Uniforma Ve Rutbeler [The Uniforms and Ranks of the Turkish Army During the First World War]: Table-11 inaccurately presents the 1962 film prop WW1 Turkish Officers’ buckle as an original, and does not show the actual WW1-wartime buckles used by Ottoman officers.

As a final note, these later publications show the exact same group of buckles all coming from one particular collector in Germany.


[1] The 1962 film prop WW1 Turkish officer's buckle has been identified as a fake in the following publication: Flaherty, C. (2011) WW1 Wartime Ersatz Ottoman Turkish Officers’ Buckles. The Armourer Militaria Magazine, Issue 108 (November-December): 27-29.

Copy 1877 Turkish Officers’ Buckle (From Turetskiy Gambit 2005)

Above - This brass cast costume buckle (complete with belts) from the 2005 movie, 'Turetskiy Gambit' frequently turns up for sale on ebay as WW1 vintage. The buckle was also recently used for the Egyptian soldier's costume in TV series ITV's Tutankhamun (2016).

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